Current Page: ImVajraSupportGlossary
Glossary
General introduction of all information security glossary:
Glossary 1 Adware, Back door, Browser Hijacker, Dialer, Identity, Key Logger, Malware, etc.
Glossary 2 Password generator, Password manager, PUP, PIN, Spyware, Thiefware, Trackware, etc.

Access code
(1) An identification number and/or password used to gain access into a computer system.
(2) The number used as a prefix to a calling number in order to gain access to a particular telephone service.

Adware
Programs that are downloaded and installed without user's consent or bound with other software to conduct commercial advertisement propaganda through pop-ups or other ways, which often lead to system slowness or exception after installing.

Antivirus software (AV)
Applicaiton designed to detect and potentially eliminate malicious software, such as viruses and worms, before they have had a chance to wreak havoc within the system. It may block user access to infected files, clean infected files or systems, or inform the user that an infected program was detected.

Attack
A deliberate attempt to compromise the security of a computer system or deprive others of using the system.

Back door
A hardware or software-based hidden entry to a computer system, which can be used to bypass the system's security policies.

Browser Hijacker
A form of malware or spyware that replaces the existing internet browser home page, error page, or search page with its own, generally used to force hits to a particular website.

Computer security
The protection of information assets using technology, processes and training.

Confidentiality
Restrictions on the accessibility and dissemination of information. Confidentiality is one of the six fundamental components of information security.

Cookie
A small data file that is stored on one's local computer to keep record and which contains information about the user that is pertinent to a Web site, such as user preferences.

Credential
Information including identification and proof of identification that is used to gain access to local and network resources, e.g. user names and passwords, smart cards, and certificates.

Credit Card
Plastic card authorizing the account holder to charge purchases against a preapproved credit line. Credit cards are issued by banks, thrift institutions, retailers, gasoline companies, and other credit grantors. Many card issuers charge an Annual Fee to cover account servicing costs.

Data transfer
A key principle of privacy, moving personally identifiable information between entities, such as a customer list being shared between two different companies.

Denial of Service (DoS)
Prevent authorized access to a system resource or delay system operations and functions.

denial of service attack
An attempt by a malicious (or unwitting) user, process, or system to prevent legitimate users from accessing a network service by exploiting a weakness or design limitation in an information system, which includes flooding network connections, filling disk storage, disabling ports, or removing power.

Dialer
Software that automatically dials telephone numbers given in the program without user's consent. It generally dials long-distance or voice telephone and thus brings high telephone fees to users.

Digital certificate
A digitally signed statement binding the identifying information of a user, computer or service to a public/private key pair, which is commonly used in the process of authentication and for securing information on networks.

Digital signature
Data that binds a sender's identity to the information being sent, which may be bundled with any message, file, or other digitally encoded information, or transmitted separately. Digital signatures are used in public key environments and provide nonrepudiation and integrity services to uniquely identifies the sender of the message and proves the message hasn't changed since transmission.

Domain Hijacking
An attack by which an attacker takes over a domain, which is realized by first blocking access to the domain's DNS server and then putting his own server up in its place.

Distributed denial of service (DDoS)
A type of denial of service attack in which an attacker uses malicious code installed on various computers to attack a single target. This methods may be used by an attacker to have a greater effect on the target than is possible with a single attacking machine.

E-mail bomb
A denial of service attack in which an excessive amount of e-mail data is sent to an e-mail address attempting to break the e-mail service or to prevent the recipient from receiving legitimate messages.

Firewall
A logical or physical discontinuity in a network, allowing only authorized network traffic to pass through according to traffic filtering rules.

Hardening
Process of identifying and fixing vulnerabilities on a system.

Hijack Attack
A type of active wiretapping in which the attacker takes control of a previously established communication association.

Hybrid Attack
Building on the dictionary attack method by adding numerals and symbols to dictionary words.

Identity
The aggregate of characteristics by which an individual is recognized.

Information security
The protection of data against unauthorized access. Programs and data can be secured by issuing passwords and digital certificates to authorized users. However, passwords only validate that a correct number has been entered, not that it is the actual person. Digital certificates and biometric techniques (fingerprints, eyes, voice, etc.) provide a more secure method. After a user has been authenticated, sensitive data can be encrypted to prevent eavesdropping.

Interrupt
A signal to inform the system that something has occurred.

IP Flood
A denial of service attack that sends a host more echo request ("ping") packets than the protocol implementation can process.

IP Spoofing
The technique of supplying a false IP address.

Key Logger
Keypad information installer that Hacker installs in user's computer remotely to record every keystroke and thus steal password and other personal data.

Mail relaying
Occurs when mail is forwarded from someone else through your mail server. Forwarding mail through a mail server is perfectly natural as long as either the originator of the message or the receiver is a local user. If neither the originator nor the receiver of the message is a local user, it is called third-party mail relaying. Usually the mail servers can be configured not to accept third-party mail relay, but often they are not. Mail servers that allow third-party mail relaying are of special attraction to "mail spammers" for sending large amounts of junk e-mail under false identity.

Malicious code
An Internet threat (e.g., Trojan horse) that appears to perform a useful or desirable function, but actually gains unauthorized access to system resources or tricks a user into executing other malicious logic.

Malicious user
A user who purposively accesses a system with the purpose of causing harm to the system or using it in an unauthorized manner.

Malware
Software that interferes with normal computer functions or sends personal data about the user to unauthorized parties over the Internet, which is designed to destroy, aggravate and otherwise make life unhappy.

Overload
Hindrance of system operation by placing excess burden on the performance capabilities of a system component.

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